written by AIM
After Prophet Jesus, God sent Muhammad as the Final Prophet and Messenger of God. With his prophethood, the process of guidance reached its peak and perfection.
Prophet Muhammad was born in the city of Mecca in Arabia in the family which traced its lineage to Prophet Abraham through his son Ishmael. At the age of forty, Prophet Muhammad recieved the first revelation from God through the Arch-Angel Gabriel.
He called the people of Mecca who were mostly idol-worshippers to the worship of One God, and to a life based on laws of God which would guarantee peace and harmony in inter human relationship. Majority of the people of Mecca refused to accept his message. The small number of his followers did not deter the Prophet from continuing his mission. Muhammad was fully supported in his mission by close family members, in particular his wife, Khadija, and cousin, ‘Ali.
The leaders of idol-worshippers of Mecca, who did not want any change in the status-quo, started a campaign against Prophet Muhammad and the religion of Islam:
• first they started propaganda against Prophet Muhammad;
• then they started social and economic embargo against Muslims;
• finally they planned to assassinate the Prophet himself.
In the meanwhile, the Prophet’s message found a very receptive audience among the people of Medina, a city in northern Arabia. So after thirteen years of hard work in Mecca, the Prophet Muhammad migrated to Medina where he lived for the last eleven years of his life.
It was in Medina that the Prophet founded the first Islamic community on the principles of monotheism of the Almighty and brotherhood of the Muslims.
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Books and Articles
The Message by Ayatullah Jafar Subhani
The Life of Muhammad, the Greatest Liberator by Allama Baqir Shareef al-Qurashi
The Seal of the Prophets and His Message by Sayyid Mujtaba Musavi Lari
The Unschooled Prophet by Shaheed Murtadha Mutahhari
The Life of Muhammad, the Prophet by Sayyed Saeed Akhtar Rizvi
Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah by Balagh Foundation
The Life of Imam Al-Sadiq by Sheikh Muhammad Husayn Al-Mudhaffar
Lantern of the Path teachings of Imam Al-Sadiq (a)
Tawheed Al-Mufadhal teachings of Imam Al-Sadiq (a)
The Splendor of the Prophet of Islam
Previous Prophets mentioned some of the characteristics of the Prophet of Islam in their heavenly books, giving their followers the glad tidings of his future appearance. As the Quran says: “Those to whom We sent books (the Jews and the Christians) know well of Muhammad and his truthfulness, just as they know their own children, but some of them obstinately hide the truth, although they are well aware of it.” It was under these circumstances that the promised deliverer Muhammad, upon whom be peace, was born at dawn on Friday, the seventeenth day of the month of Rabi’ al-Awwal, fifty three years before the migration (hijra), corresponding to the year 570 of the Christian era, in the city of Mecca in the Arabian Peninsula.
Exemplary Life of the Messenger of Allah
It was in the latter half of the sixth century, when the world was plunged in utter darkness that the Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.), was born. The then known world stood on the verge of destruction, with chaos as the order of the day and pre-Islamic Arabia was no exception to this, rather it was in the lowest depths of abysmal darkness; infanticide was rampant, debauchery was looked upon as chivalrous, drunkenness was a common sight and all forms of evil was glorified.
Holy Prophet in his Youth
All tribes in Mecca were related to each other, thus they created treaties between each other to insure the security from attacks. However, for a stranger this was not the case. There was no one to protect a stranger if he had been oppressed. A man came to Mecca from another town to do some business. Aas Ibn Wa’el, a citizen of Mecca, purchased the man’s materials and didn’t pay anything in return. The man went to the tribe of Quraish and asked for help, but no one helped him. As a result of this event a group of youth from Quraish gathered and agreed to stop any oppression on strangers. They named the agreement as “Helf al-Fodul.” Being one of the main members of establishing this agreement, Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) joined the agreement. Later on he regarded it as an excellent event.
Kindness in the life of the Holy Prophet (s)
The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) has said, “If gentleness could have been a creature perceived by eyes then it would have been the most beautiful of all creations of Allah (SWT)”. (Bihar al-Anwaar)
The Beginning of the Prophetic Mission
Finally the appointed moment arrived, the moment which had been foretold by previous Prophets to their followers. At the age of forty, the orphan son of Abdullah attained the exalted station of messengerhood. It was he alone that time had prepared for guiding the world with his message for only this great and heavy responsibility could call for such qualities and virtues as he possessed. Only in such a vast enterprise could the energies of that quintessence of all existence unfold, for the entire being of Muhammad, upon whom be peace, was prepared to undertake the grave task of prophethood.
The Prophet & Prophetic Tradition
The Prophet as the founder of Islam and the messenger of God’s revelation to mankind is the interpreter par excellence of the Book of God; and his Hadith and Sunnah, his sayings and actions, are after the Quran, the most important sources of the Islamic tradition. In order to understand the significance of the Prophet it is not sufficient to study, from the outside historical texts pertaining to his life. One must view him also from within the Islamic point of view and try to discover the position he occupies in the religious consciousness of Muslims.
The Universal Mission of the Prophet of Islam
Islam emerged like a limpid fountain and increased in depth and expanse as time went by. It finally became a great river passing through various human societies, irrigating fields in which seeds of humanity were to be planted, satisfying the thirst of human beings for salvation and justice. It is going on and will surely continue to do so as long as there are human beings on earth because human nature is thirsty for this heavenly faith and would perish if it were denied it.
Muhammad in Early European Sources
Today academics have no problems in admitting the fact that the image of Muhammad often given in the West prior to the last century and a half; has been one of pure speculation and slander. In fact many scholars in the west of the past century such as Karen Armstrong and Montgomery Watt have written essays and articles or even books regarding the unfair portrayal of our Prophet in Europe.
The Sixth Imam, Ja’far Al-Sadiq (a)
This is an account of the Imam who was in charge (al-qai’im) after Abu Ja’far Muhammad b. Ali, peace be on them, including who his mother was, the date of his birth, evidence for his Imamate, his age, the period of his succession (to the Imamate), the time of his death, the place of his grave, the number of his children, and a brief outline of the reports about him.
The Teachings of Imam Al-Sadiq (a)
The Imam (A.S.) said: Our followers in secret and openness enjoy a number of indications with which they are realized. As the man asked about these indications, the Imam (A.S.) said: These are certain characters the first of which is that they knew monotheism perfectly, they excelled in the rules of Allah’s oneness, and finally they believed in Allah’s oneness and its description. Then they recognized the outlines, facts, provisions, and interpretation of faith.
The Scholarly Jihad of the Imams – 95 AH to 148 AH
The period under discussion (95-148 A.H /712-765 A.D.) began and ended in the times of the fifth and sixth Imams.