A Rule on Proving Caliphate
Know that when the divine wisdom that encompasses all perfections and comprises the most beautiful names of God and His sublime attributes determined to expand the kingdom of creation and mercy and spread the ensign of power and wisdom by manifesting the possible beings and creating the the beings and creatures and running the affairs and administrating them, accomplishing this work directly by the unique pre-eternal essence without a medium was inconceivable, for a relationship between the might of pre-eternity and lowliness of temporality is inconceivable. So Allah the Glorified determined to designate a deputy to represent Him in matters of administration, authority, protection and and custody.
The deputy or vicegerent invariably has one side to pre-eternity and is provided by the Real the Glorified, and one side to temporality to provide to the creatures. Allah thus has created His deputy in His own form and relegated administration to him and invested him with all the habits of His names and attributes and firmly established him in the seat of caliphate by leaving to him the measures of the affairs and conferring on him the leadership of people. Indeed the purpose of creating the world is the creation of man who is Allah’s vicegerent in the world. In other words, the elements have been created for the existence of vegetables, and the vegetables exist for the sake of animals, and the animals for man, and man exists for the spirits, and the spirits for the sake of rational souls, and finally the rational souls have been created for the existence of Allah’s vicegerent on earth: ‘Indeed I am going to set a vicegerent on the earth’. [2:30]
The Prophet, therefore, has to take and learn from Allah and in turn to give and guide His servants. He is the intermediary link between the two worlds, on one side he is all hearing and on the other he is speaking. This is also the case of the messengers of Allah to His servants and interceders for them on the day they come to Him. In other words, the heart of the Prophet has two open gates: one opens to the world of heavenly kingdom, which is the world of the Preserved Tablet, and the world of intellectual and practical angels, and the other opens to the perceptive faculty to look into the senses and understand the matters and needs of people. The Prophet then must order people to obey and worship Allah in his religious law in order to take them from the level of animals to the ranks of angels through forming good habits, for the prophets are the leaders of caravans.
[Excerpt taken from the English translation of the book ‘Divine Manifestations Concerning the Secrets of the Perfecting Sciences’, Mulla Sadra Shirazi, ICAS Press 2010, pg 154-155]